Illustrative General Questions At
The Community Level

Access To and
Control Over Assets

  1. How do men’s and women’s access and control over community resources affect their ability to:
    • Decide to seek care?
    • Reach the right level of care?
    • Access transport to care?
    • Access health information?
    • Get appropriate care?
  2. Do men/boys and women/girls have equal chance of choosing any health occupation?
  3. Do men and women have equal access to the resources necessary to study health careers that may take longer or require specialized training?
  4. Who decides about the deployment of community resources for health?
    • Transport
    • Infrastructure

Beliefs and Perceptions
(Norm)

  1. What are beliefs about:
    • Age of marriage for boys, men, girls, and women?
    • Female genital mutilation for girls and women?
    • Circumcision for boys and men?
    • Sex work for women and men?
    • Adolescent boys and girls’ use of condoms and other contraceptives?
    • Sex for girls prior to marriage or women outside of marriage?
    • Sex for boys prior to marriage or men outside of marriage?
    • Homosexuality?
    • Polygamy for men? Polygamy for women?
  2. How does the community enforce gender norms and punish people when they do not conform to appropriate gender norms? How does this kind of social control affect men? How does it affect women? What are the ways in which communities discriminate against women? How do these practices also stigmatize some men?

Practices and Participation
(Roles & Responsibilities)

  1. How many and what percentage of women and men serve on the community health committee?
  2. How is the burden of care for the young and old distributed between men and women?
  3. Who does what kind of health work? Men? Women?
  4. How is health work organized? Are men and women treated equally regarding:
    • Formal/informal care?
    • Paid/unpaid care?
    • Full-time/part-time work?
    • Skilled/unskilled work?
  5. What kinds of social groups do men and women participate in, respectively? What kind of leadership positions do men and women occupy? How do men’s and women’s participation in social groups affect their access to health information? Their access to health services? Care and support from other community members?

Laws, Policies,
and Institutions

  1. What kinds of groups and associations do men and women participate in?
  2. Are there groups that bar women from membership?
  3. Are there groups that bar men from membership?
  4. Are women and men represented in leadership of:
    • the community
    • health committees
    • producer’s associations
    • other civil society organizations
Illustrative Questions Specific To
Adolescent Reproductive Health & Family Planning At The Community Level

Access To and
Control Over Assets

  1. What kind of assets do adolescent girls have access to? What kind of assets do adolescent boys have access to?
    • Schooling
    • Vocational training
    • Mentors
    • Employment
    • Peer groups
    • Money for school supplies
  2. How do these assets influence their dating and sexual behavior (e.g., role of peer groups)?
  3. Do adolescent girls have access to reproductive health (RH)/FP services and information, such as about contraceptives, sexually transmitted infections (STIs), HIV? What kinds of financial and social barriers impede their access?
  4. Do adolescent boys have access to RH/FP services and information, such as about contraceptives, STIs and HIV? What kinds of financial and social barriers impede their access?
    How do adolescent girls gain access to financial assets for food, shelter, school materials, and clothing?
  5. How do adolescent boys gain access to financial assets for food, shelter, school materials, and clothing?
  6. How do adolescent girls gain access to condoms and other contraceptives?
  7. How do adolescent boys gain access to condoms and other contraceptives?
  8. What kind of social networks do adolescent boys have? What is the average number of people in boys’ networks?
  9. What kind of social networks do adolescent girls have? What is the average number of people in boys’ networks?
  10. Until what age respectively do girls and boys stay in school? What is the average year of completion for girls? For boys?
  11. Respectively, what kinds of media do adolescent boys and girls have access to?
  12. How do boys and girls learn about sex and from whom?
  13. How do boys and girls obtain information about contraception and from whom?

Beliefs and Perceptions
(Norm)

  1. Are girls expected to abstain from sexual relations until marriage? What is the reason? Are girls able to do this?
  2. Are boys expected to abstain from sexual relations until marriage? What is the reason? Are boys able to do this? Are boys expected to be sexually experienced before getting married? What is the reason?
  3. What are local beliefs about adolescent boys or girls having sex with a non-married partner?
  4. What are local beliefs about adolescents’ use of contraceptives?
  5. What are men’s and women’s beliefs about contraceptives?
  6. Are some contraceptives believed to be only for use by married couples, have side effects that affect fertility or women’s or men’s health? Do men and women hold these beliefs equally?
  7. For married adolescents, how do beliefs about son or daughter preference influence women’s use of contraception?
  8. Are there beliefs held by men and/or women that discourage use of contraceptives at particular times or for particular women (i.e., adolescents, breastfeeding women, women without children)?
  9. Are there beliefs held by men and/or women that discourage adolescent girls or young women from getting a Pap smear or receiving a human papilloma virus vaccine?
  10. What are men’s and women’s perceptions of young men or young women who enter into relationships with the expectation of receiving money or other gifts? With someone of the same sex?
  11. What are community attitudes toward adolescent girls or boys having access to cell phones?

Practices and Participation
(Roles & Responsibilities)

  1. Respectively, at what age do boys and girls have their first sexual experience? Is it prior to or after marriage (for girls? for boys?)
  2. Respectively, are boys and girls allowed to influence or discuss with their parents when, or whom to marry, or if to marry? Who decides?
  3. Do parents discuss with or educate their children about sex?
  4. Do parents discuss with or educate their children about sex?
    Do girls or boys experience sexual abuse or harassment: school, water source, market, friends’ or relatives’ houses, at home, or health services? When? By whom? At what ages?
  5. Can adolescent girls use health services without the permission of parents, partners, or in-laws?
  6. Do adolescent girls or boys engage in sexual or romantic relations in the expectation of receiving money or other gifts? With their peers? With older men or women?
  7. Do adolescent boys or girls engage in sex work? How are girls recruited? How are boys recruited?
  8. Do adolescent boys or girls experience violence from an intimate partner? What effect does this have on girls’ and boys’ schooling? To what extent is violence associated with early pregnancy and early marriage?
  9. Do adolescent boys or girls participate in community government, producer associations, or other civil society organizations? What determines if they participate or not—family position or wealth, educational attainment, other factors?
  10. Respectively, what activities or tasks are girls and boys responsible for? Are these by choice or prescribed by the community? What happens when individual boys or girls don’t follow these norms of behavior?

Laws, Policies,
and Institutions

  1. What kinds of services exist in the community tailored for youth? (e.g., health, education, employment, digital)?
  2. At what age do boys attain adult legal status? At what age do girls attain adult legal status? What does that mean for boys in terms of political participation, ownership of property, decisions about marriage? What does that mean for girls and boys in terms of political participation, ownership of property, decisions about marriage?
  3. What is the age of marriage for girls? For boys?
  4. What is the age of sexual consent for girls and boys?
  5. Is comprehensive sexual education taught in schools?
Next Section: The Facility Level >

Resources

Inner Spaces Outer Faces Initiative (ISOFI) Toolkit: Tools for Learning and Action on Gender and Sexuality.

CARE Center for Research on Women.

2007. Washington, DC: CARE and ICRW.
http://bit.ly/1IkwGIl

Authors: CARE Center for Research on Women. Date: 2007

Organization: CARE and International Center for Research on Women

URL: http://bit.ly/1IkwGIl

Health Area: Maternal and Reproductive Health/FP

Tool Objectives (What is this tool designed to help you do?): This training module is designed for project staff to use internally or with communities to examine their personal beliefs and attitudes about gender and sexuality; explore organizational values and approaches to addressing inequities in gender and sexuality in health programs to allow staff to explore their own values as they relate to gender and sexuality; and improve organizational processes and practices.

Targeted Users: Health and development organizations and practitioners.

How to apply the tool? This toolkit can be used by health and development organizations to increase community members’ and staff’s understanding of gender and sexuality issues and how those issues relate to reproductive health.

Integrating Gender in Care and Support of Vulnerable Children: A guide for program designers and implementers.

Doggett, Elizabeth and Tanya Medrano.

2012. Chapel Hill, NC: FHI 360.
http://bit.ly/1Oj9Nvx

Authors: Doggett, Elizabeth and Tanya Medrano. Date: 2012

Organization: FHI 360

URL: http://bit.ly/1Oj9Nvx

Health Area: Adolescent boys

Tool Objectives (What is this tool designed to help you do?): This tool provides step-by-step guidance on how to integrate gender into programs designed to address the needs of vulnerable children. It guides users through the gender analysis process and provides a number of tools for collecting data for an initial gender analysis for program design, monitoring, and evaluation. Although it is not designed as a data collection tool, it does have a checklist in the annex that is useful in indicating the steps that should be followed when conducting a gender analysis prior to the design of a new program.

Targeted Users: It is designed as a support material for program staff who want to create new programs and integrate gender and to train participants

How to apply the tool? This document was designed to help program staff integrate gender into new programs that serve vulnerable children, and it is also a training source that contains training activities on gender analysis and integration.

The Gender Roles, Equality and Transformations Project (GREAT): Activity Cards for Married and/or Parenting Adolescents.

Institute for Reproductive Health.

2013.
http://bit.ly/1TfwCiV

Authors: Institute for Reproductive Health. Date: 2013

Organization: Institute for Reproductive Health.

URL: http://bit.ly/1TfwCiV

Health Area: Adolescent FP and reproductive and maternal health, with a focus on married and parenting adolescents.

Tool Objectives (What is this tool designed to help you do?): This is a participatory method designed to use with married and/or parenting adolescents. It contains a series of interactive activities and exercises designed to elicit participants’ perspectives on a host of gender and reproductive health related topics. It provides instructions for facilitators to guide the exercises and discussions about equality, health, and safety resulting from the interactive game. There are cards to provide the content and structure for a variety of games; discussions; debates; community interviews; and music, drama, and dance. These cards focus on reproductive health, healthy pregnancies, planning for the future, alcohol abuse, and relationships.

Targeted Users: Community health educators with married or parenting adolescents.

How to apply the tool? This tool is aimed to be applied to married and/or parenting adolescents to discuss and understand equality, health, and safety.

Authors: CARE Center for Research on Women. Date: 2007

Organization: CARE and International Center for Research on Women

URL: http://bit.ly/1IkwGIl

Health Area: Maternal and Reproductive Health/FP

Tool Objectives (What is this tool designed to help you do?): This training module is designed for project staff to use internally or with communities to examine their personal beliefs and attitudes about gender and sexuality; explore organizational values and approaches to addressing inequities in gender and sexuality in health programs to allow staff to explore their own values as they relate to gender and sexuality; and improve organizational processes and practices.

Targeted Users: Health and development organizations and practitioners.

How to apply the tool? This toolkit can be used by health and development organizations to increase community members’ and staff’s understanding of gender and sexuality issues and how those issues relate to reproductive health.

Authors: Doggett, Elizabeth and Tanya Medrano. Date: 2012

Organization: FHI 360

URL: http://bit.ly/1Oj9Nvx

Health Area: Adolescent boys

Tool Objectives (What is this tool designed to help you do?): This tool provides step-by-step guidance on how to integrate gender into programs designed to address the needs of vulnerable children. It guides users through the gender analysis process and provides a number of tools for collecting data for an initial gender analysis for program design, monitoring, and evaluation. Although it is not designed as a data collection tool, it does have a checklist in the annex that is useful in indicating the steps that should be followed when conducting a gender analysis prior to the design of a new program.

Targeted Users: It is designed as a support material for program staff who want to create new programs and integrate gender and to train participants

How to apply the tool? This document was designed to help program staff integrate gender into new programs that serve vulnerable children, and it is also a training source that contains training activities on gender analysis and integration.

Authors: Institute for Reproductive Health. Date: 2013

Organization: Institute for Reproductive Health.

URL: http://bit.ly/1TfwCiV

Health Area: Adolescent FP and reproductive and maternal health, with a focus on married and parenting adolescents.

Tool Objectives (What is this tool designed to help you do?): This is a participatory method designed to use with married and/or parenting adolescents. It contains a series of interactive activities and exercises designed to elicit participants’ perspectives on a host of gender and reproductive health related topics. It provides instructions for facilitators to guide the exercises and discussions about equality, health, and safety resulting from the interactive game. There are cards to provide the content and structure for a variety of games; discussions; debates; community interviews; and music, drama, and dance. These cards focus on reproductive health, healthy pregnancies, planning for the future, alcohol abuse, and relationships.

Targeted Users: Community health educators with married or parenting adolescents.

How to apply the tool? This tool is aimed to be applied to married and/or parenting adolescents to discuss and understand equality, health, and safety.

Program H Working with Young Men Series.

Instituto Papai, Promundo, Ecos, and Salud y Género.

2002. Rio de Janeiro: Promundo.
http://bit.ly/1NaIY7s

Authors: Instituto Papai, Promundo, Ecos, and Salud y Género. Date: 2002

Organization: Instituto Papai, Promundo, Ecos, and Salud y Género.

URL: http://bit.ly/1NaIY7s

Health Area: Adolescence (Sexual and Reproductive Health, HIV/AIDS)

Tool Objectives (What is this tool designed to help you do?): This manual presents information on masculinities and reproductive health topics related to young men. It provides a collection of participatory tools for programming and research to engage young men and support more equitable gender relations.

Targeted Users: Young fathers, young men, adolescents, sexually active individuals.

How to apply the tool? This tool can be implemented for participatory research or program implementation.

Women’s Empowerment - Multidimensional Evaluation of Agency, Social Capital & Relations (WE-MEASR): A Tool to Measure Women’s Empowerment in Sexual, Reproductive, and Maternal Health Programs.

CARE USA.

2014. Atlanta, GA: CARE.
http://bit.ly/1jsxYul

Authors: CARE USA. Date: 2014

Organization: CARE USA.

URL: http://bit.ly/1jsxYul

Health Area: Maternal and reproductive health/FP

Tool Objectives (What is this tool designed to help you do?): The tool was developed to measure women’s empowerment in domains of their lives that are important for improving sexual, reproductive, and maternal health outcomes. It is composed of 20 short scales designed to measure women’s agency, social capital, and relations with their partners. It was tested in both matrilineal and patrilineal communities in Malawi. CARE is using local adaptations in several other countries to test the applicability of the scales in different contexts.

Targeted Users: Researchers, M&E staff, and gender advisors.

How to apply the tool? The tool is applied through interviews using the questionnaire developed by CARE. Answers are given a numeric value and scored on a scale adapted from other tools developed by Measure Evaluation, Population Council, Promundo, International for Research on Women, and others.

SASA! Activist Kit for Preventing Violence Against Women and HIV.

Michau, Lori et al.

2008 Kampala, Uganda: Raising Voices.
http://bit.ly/1Oj9TTR

Authors: Michau, Lori et al. Date: 2008

Organization: Raising Voices

URL: http://bit.ly/1Oj9TTR

Health Area: HIV

Tool Objectives (What is this tool designed to help you do?): The SASA! Toolkit aims to empower community members to take action on the interconnected issues of violence against women and HIV/AIDS through a multi-phase process. The toolkit aims to introduce community members to violence against women and HIV/AIDS as interconnected issues and encourages community member activism around those issues. The second phase aims to raise community members’ awareness of how power and gender roles influence violence against women and the occurrence of HIV/AIDS. The third phase of the toolkit provides resources to help community members support activists as well as women and men affected by these issues. The final phase provides resources that empower community members to take action to prevent violence against women and HIV.

Targeted Users: Activists working on violence against women and HIV/AIDS and community members affected by violence against women and HIV/AIDS.

How to apply the tool? This tool can be used by activists to raise community awareness of violence against women and HIV/AIDS, provide them with the tools to support those affected by these interconnected issues, and take action to prevent violence against women and HIV. Activists can use these resources, including monitoring and assessment tools, media and advocacy tools, communication, and training materials, in their work.

Authors: Instituto Papai, Promundo, Ecos, and Salud y Género. Date: 2002

Organization: Instituto Papai, Promundo, Ecos, and Salud y Género.

URL: http://bit.ly/1NaIY7s

Health Area: Adolescence (Sexual and Reproductive Health, HIV/AIDS)

Tool Objectives (What is this tool designed to help you do?): This manual presents information on masculinities and reproductive health topics related to young men. It provides a collection of participatory tools for programming and research to engage young men and support more equitable gender relations.

Targeted Users: Young fathers, young men, adolescents, sexually active individuals.

How to apply the tool? This tool can be implemented for participatory research or program implementation.

Authors: CARE USA. Date: 2014

Organization: CARE USA.

URL: http://bit.ly/1jsxYul

Health Area: Maternal and reproductive health/FP

Tool Objectives (What is this tool designed to help you do?): The tool was developed to measure women’s empowerment in domains of their lives that are important for improving sexual, reproductive, and maternal health outcomes. It is composed of 20 short scales designed to measure women’s agency, social capital, and relations with their partners. It was tested in both matrilineal and patrilineal communities in Malawi. CARE is using local adaptations in several other countries to test the applicability of the scales in different contexts.

Targeted Users: Researchers, M&E staff, and gender advisors.

How to apply the tool? The tool is applied through interviews using the questionnaire developed by CARE. Answers are given a numeric value and scored on a scale adapted from other tools developed by Measure Evaluation, Population Council, Promundo, International for Research on Women, and others.

Authors: Michau, Lori et al. Date: 2008

Organization: Raising Voices

URL: http://bit.ly/1Oj9TTR

Health Area: HIV

Tool Objectives (What is this tool designed to help you do?): The SASA! Toolkit aims to empower community members to take action on the interconnected issues of violence against women and HIV/AIDS through a multi-phase process. The toolkit aims to introduce community members to violence against women and HIV/AIDS as interconnected issues and encourages community member activism around those issues. The second phase aims to raise community members’ awareness of how power and gender roles influence violence against women and the occurrence of HIV/AIDS. The third phase of the toolkit provides resources to help community members support activists as well as women and men affected by these issues. The final phase provides resources that empower community members to take action to prevent violence against women and HIV.

Targeted Users: Activists working on violence against women and HIV/AIDS and community members affected by violence against women and HIV/AIDS.

How to apply the tool? This tool can be used by activists to raise community awareness of violence against women and HIV/AIDS, provide them with the tools to support those affected by these interconnected issues, and take action to prevent violence against women and HIV. Activists can use these resources, including monitoring and assessment tools, media and advocacy tools, communication, and training materials, in their work.

Participatory Action Research in Health Systems: A Methods Reader.

Loewenson, Rene, Asa C. Laurell, Christer Hotstedt, Lucia D’Ambruoso, and Zubin Shroff.

2014. Ottawa, Canada and Harare, Zimbabwe: Training and Research Support Centre, Alliance for Health Policy and Systems Research, World Health Organization, International Development Research Centre Canada, and Regional Network for Equity in Health in East and Southern Africa.
http://bit.ly/1MU4yhn

Authors: Loewenson, Rene, Asa C. Laurell, Christer Hotstedt, Lucia D’Ambruoso, and Zubin Shroff. Date: 2014

Organization: International Development Research Centre, World Health Organization, Regional Network on Equity in Health in East and Southern Africa (Equinet), Training and Research Support Centre, and Alliance for Health Policy and Systems Research.

URL: http://bit.ly/1MU4yhn

Health Area: All

Tool Objectives (What is this tool designed to help you do?): To make participatory action research understandable and accessible for health policy and systems research. It explains how these implementation research methods can be useful for improving health and health systems. The reader seeks to clarify the key elements of participatory action research and the social science theories underlying it. It explains how to use the process and methods used in participatory action research, including recent innovations and developments in the field. The reader also learns how the findings can be communicated, reported, and applied to improve health systems. Although the resource is not specifically focused on gender analysis, it provides a good introduction to tools that are useful for conducting a gender analysis, as long as they are used to both engage men and women equitably in the research and to gather comparative information.

Targeted Users: The reader is intended for use by researchers in academia and health policy and systems communities. It is also intended for community level and program implementing organizations, and policymakers.

How to apply the tool? The reader provides five distinct resources. Part I provides an overview of the key concepts underlying participatory action research. Part II introduces different methods for gathering and analyzing information. Part III addresses some of the challenges in applying the methods and some of the analytical issues related to comparability, selection bias, causality, validity, and generalization of results. Part IV discusses how to communicate and apply the results and how to form communities of practice in support of PAR. Part V provides access via electronic links to 21 published papers based on the application of PAR methods for health system research.

Compendium of Gender Scales.

Nanda, Geeta.

2011.Washington, DC: FHI 360/C-Change.
http://bit.ly/1lMWisE

Authors: Nanda, Geeta. Date: 2011

Organization: FHI 360/C-Change

URL: http://bit.ly/1lMWisE

Health Area: FP and reproductive health

Tool Objectives (What is this tool designed to help you do?): This tool provides scales for measuring the extent to which gender is integrated into programs. Scales aggregate multiple indicators on particular topics. The gender scales in this compendium include: 1) couple and communication on sex (p. 5-6); 2) women’s empowerment (p. 7-10); 3) gender beliefs (p. 11-12); 4) gender equitable men (p. 13-16); 5) gender norms and attitudes (p. 17-20); 6) gender relations (p. 21-24); 7) household decision-making (p. 25-26); and 8) sexual relationship power (p. 26-29). These scales include specific information on the scale of the objective, types of behaviour predicted, number of items and subscales, scoring procedures, psychometrics used, statistics used to test validity, who and where it has been used, and other additional relevant information such as definitions.

Targeted Users: Health and development practitioners measuring gender-related attitudes in their programs.

How to apply the tool? Users can use one or more of the scales to measure gender norms, gender attitudes, and women’s empowerment in eight different topic areas.

Go Girls! Vulnerable Girls Indices: Data from the 2009 Baseline and 2010 Endline Survey in Botswana, Malawi, and Mozambique.

Michau, Lori et al.

2008 Kampala, Uganda: Raising Voices.
http://bit.ly/1Oj9TTR

Authors: Michau, Lori et al. Date: 2008

Organization: JHU/CCP

URL: http://bit.ly/1Oj9TTR

Health Area: Adolescent girls’ health, education, and livelihoods

Tool Objectives (What is this tool designed to help you do?): The Go Girls! Initiative, a component of the PEPFAR-funded Project SEARCH, was implemented in four communities each in Botswana, and Malawi and in eight communities in Mozambique. It was designed in response to the persistent evidence that adolescent girls in sub-Saharan Africa are more vulnerable to HIV/AIDS than are boys who are their peers. The purpose was to define and test indices that could be standardized for Go Girls! Initiative to assess girls’ vulnerability to HIV/AIDS and to measure the degree of protective factors extant in a given community.

Targeted Users: Researchers, evaluators, evaluator managers, health providers.

How to apply the tool? This tool can be used as a reference for future research and program monitoring. The indicators that make up the indices are explained, and the annex provides a detailed description of the type of information collected. The data collection instruments are not included in the publication.

Authors: Loewenson, Rene, Asa C. Laurell, Christer Hotstedt, Lucia D’Ambruoso, and Zubin Shroff. Date: 2014

Organization: International Development Research Centre, World Health Organization, Regional Network on Equity in Health in East and Southern Africa (Equinet), Training and Research Support Centre, and Alliance for Health Policy and Systems Research.

URL: http://bit.ly/1MU4yhn

Health Area: All

Tool Objectives (What is this tool designed to help you do?): To make participatory action research understandable and accessible for health policy and systems research. It explains how these implementation research methods can be useful for improving health and health systems. The reader seeks to clarify the key elements of participatory action research and the social science theories underlying it. It explains how to use the process and methods used in participatory action research, including recent innovations and developments in the field. The reader also learns how the findings can be communicated, reported, and applied to improve health systems. Although the resource is not specifically focused on gender analysis, it provides a good introduction to tools that are useful for conducting a gender analysis, as long as they are used to both engage men and women equitably in the research and to gather comparative information.

Targeted Users: The reader is intended for use by researchers in academia and health policy and systems communities. It is also intended for community level and program implementing organizations, and policymakers.

How to apply the tool? The reader provides five distinct resources. Part I provides an overview of the key concepts underlying participatory action research. Part II introduces different methods for gathering and analyzing information. Part III addresses some of the challenges in applying the methods and some of the analytical issues related to comparability, selection bias, causality, validity, and generalization of results. Part IV discusses how to communicate and apply the results and how to form communities of practice in support of PAR. Part V provides access via electronic links to 21 published papers based on the application of PAR methods for health system research.

Authors: Nanda, Geeta. Date: 2011

Organization: FHI 360/C-Change

URL: http://bit.ly/1lMWisE

Health Area: FP and reproductive health

Tool Objectives (What is this tool designed to help you do?): This tool provides scales for measuring the extent to which gender is integrated into programs. Scales aggregate multiple indicators on particular topics. The gender scales in this compendium include: 1) couple and communication on sex (p. 5-6); 2) women’s empowerment (p. 7-10); 3) gender beliefs (p. 11-12); 4) gender equitable men (p. 13-16); 5) gender norms and attitudes (p. 17-20); 6) gender relations (p. 21-24); 7) household decision-making (p. 25-26); and 8) sexual relationship power (p. 26-29). These scales include specific information on the scale of the objective, types of behaviour predicted, number of items and subscales, scoring procedures, psychometrics used, statistics used to test validity, who and where it has been used, and other additional relevant information such as definitions.

Targeted Users: Health and development practitioners measuring gender-related attitudes in their programs.

How to apply the tool? Users can use one or more of the scales to measure gender norms, gender attitudes, and women’s empowerment in eight different topic areas.

Authors: Michau, Lori et al. Date: 2008

Organization: JHU/CCP

URL: http://bit.ly/1Oj9TTR

Health Area: Adolescent girls’ health, education, and livelihoods

Tool Objectives (What is this tool designed to help you do?): The Go Girls! Initiative, a component of the PEPFAR-funded Project SEARCH, was implemented in four communities each in Botswana, and Malawi and in eight communities in Mozambique. It was designed in response to the persistent evidence that adolescent girls in sub-Saharan Africa are more vulnerable to HIV/AIDS than are boys who are their peers. The purpose was to define and test indices that could be standardized for Go Girls! Initiative to assess girls’ vulnerability to HIV/AIDS and to measure the degree of protective factors extant in a given community.

Targeted Users: Researchers, evaluators, evaluator managers, health providers.

How to apply the tool? This tool can be used as a reference for future research and program monitoring. The indicators that make up the indices are explained, and the annex provides a detailed description of the type of information collected. The data collection instruments are not included in the publication.

Evaluating Stepping Stones: A review of existing evaluations and ideas for future M&E work

The Wallace for ActionAid International


http://bit.ly/1XCdAEA

Authors: The Wallace for ActionAid International Date: 2005

Organization: ActionAid International

URL: http://bit.ly/1XCdAEA

Health Area: HIV

Tool Objectives (What is this tool designed to help you do?): Although this is not specifically a data collection tool, it provides insights into how to conduct evaluations of gender-focused projects. The review examines M&E data from ActionAid’s tool Stepping Stones, an HIV/AIDS prevention tool, a tool for gender equality, and a community mobilization tool. It provides an overview of Stepping Stones (p. 6-10); methods used to
evaluate Stepping Stones (p. 11-19); key findings (p. 20-25); relevance of findings for future evaluation work (p. 26-29); and an example of the adaption and spread of SS (p. 30-32). The appendix includes Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS education and HIV/AIDS behavior benchmarks (p. 37) and a proposed list of process indicators for Stepping Stones (p. 38).

Targeted Users: This review can be used by programs using the Stepping Stones tool in their HIV programming.

How to apply the tool? The review provides M&E staff with tools for evaluating the Stepping Stones tool in their programs aimed at preventing HIV/AIDs and promoting gender equality.

Authors: The Wallace for ActionAid International Date: 2005

Organization: ActionAid International

URL: http://bit.ly/1XCdAEA

Health Area: HIV

Tool Objectives (What is this tool designed to help you do?): Although this is not specifically a data collection tool, it provides insights into how to conduct evaluations of gender-focused projects. The review examines M&E data from ActionAid’s tool Stepping Stones, an HIV/AIDS prevention tool, a tool for gender equality, and a community mobilization tool. It provides an overview of Stepping Stones (p. 6-10); methods used to
evaluate Stepping Stones (p. 11-19); key findings (p. 20-25); relevance of findings for future evaluation work (p. 26-29); and an example of the adaption and spread of SS (p. 30-32). The appendix includes Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS education and HIV/AIDS behavior benchmarks (p. 37) and a proposed list of process indicators for Stepping Stones (p. 38).

Targeted Users: This review can be used by programs using the Stepping Stones tool in their HIV programming.

How to apply the tool? The review provides M&E staff with tools for evaluating the Stepping Stones tool in their programs aimed at preventing HIV/AIDs and promoting gender equality.