Illustrative General Questions At The
Individual And Household Level

Access To and
Control Over Assets

  1. What kind of resources do women and men have access to, respectively?
    • Financial
    • Natural
    • Services
    • Information
    • Social capital
    • Knowledge
  2. What do women own? What do they do with what they own to improve their own health? Their children’s health?
  3. What do men own? What do they do with what they own to improve their own health? Their children’s health?
  4. What do they own together?
  5. Respectively, are women and men’s assets equally liquid and transferrable?

Beliefs and Perceptions
(Norm)

  1. What is appropriate behavior for a man or a woman? What is an ideal woman? What is an ideal man? How do these beliefs influence health behaviors?
  2. What are the social beliefs and perceptions that condition women and men’s expectations and aspirations? For education, for employment, for marriage and family?
  3. How might men or women interpret new experiences or information differently based on their gender identities, level of education, and different types of knowledge that men or women may have?
  4. Who should make decisions? What decisions do women make in the household? What kind of decisions do men make in the household? Which kinds of decisions are made jointly?
    • When and with whom to have sex
    • Safe sex
    • Use of FP, ANC, skilled delivery care, postpartum care?
    • VCT, PMTCT, voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC)
    • Children’s health and nutrition
    • Management of the household
  5. Schooling for boys and girls?
  6. What are men’s and women’s different experiences with violence— as victims, survivors or perpetrators?
  7. Who decides at what age a boy or girl marries? Whom they marry?
  8. Who decides whether or not a boy or man is circumcised, or whether or not if a girl or woman undergoes female genital mutilation?

Practices and Participation
(Roles & Responsibilities)

  1. What is the gendered division of labor: roles, activities, work, and responsibilities of women and men in the house?
  2. Do men or women have restrictions on their mobility? What restrictions? How do they influence women’s access to services? To supportive social networks?
  3. What types of activities, meetings, associations, and groups do they engage in?
  4. What types of leadership roles do men and women play?
  5. Respectively, how do men and women spend their time?
  6. Spatially, within the community and beyond, where are men’s and women’s activities located?
  7. What are men’s and women’s different skills and capabilities?
  8. What are men’s and women’s different experiences with violence— as victims, survivors or perpetrators?
  9. Who decides at what age a boy or girl marries? What are the reasons for getting married at younger/older ages?
  10. Who decides whether or not a boy or man is circumcised, or whether or not a girl or woman undergoes female genital mutilation?
  11. Does a man or a woman in a couple decide when to have sex and when to have a child? Under what circumstances do they decide jointly? How do they communicate their preferences?

Laws, Policies,
and Institutions

  1. How do inheritance laws treat men and women respectively? What about children, boys and girls?
  2. How does the legal system treat men and women (i.e., due process and recognition of rights)?
  3. What employment opportunities are open to men? What employment opportunities are open to women?
  4. How do men’s wages compare to women’s?
  5. How do men’s access resources from the state or private companies (e.g., health, education, basic infrastructure, and public goods) compare to women’s?
  6. Do men and women have equal status under all national, regional, and local laws?
Illustrative Questions
Specific To Hiv And Aids

Access To and
Control Over Assets

  1. What kind of resources do women and men have access to, respectively?
    • Financial
    • Natural
    • Services
    • Information
    • Social capital
    • Knowledge
    • How do differences in men’s and women’s ownership of assets affect their different risks and vulnerabilities to HIV transmission?
  2. How do men’s and women’s access to and control over assets and resources affect their decision to get tested? Their access to treatment? Their ability to follow treatment protocols? Their ability to afford or use condoms or avoid high-risk behavior, such as transactional sex?
  3. How do differences in men’s and women’s social capital affect their risk for HIV transmission and their care and support if they find out they are HIV positive?
  4. Respectively, are women and mens’ assets equally liquid and transferrable? How do differences in men’s and women’s inheritance of assets affect men’s and women’s health and wellbeing after a divorce or being widowed, e.g., due to HIV?

Beliefs and Perceptions
(Norm)

  1. What are the social beliefs and perceptions that shape what it means to be a man or a woman, for dating, courtship, marriage and sex? What is appropriate behavior for a man or a woman, for dating, courtship, marriage and sex? What is an ideal woman? What is an ideal man? How do these beliefs affect women and mens’ respective capacity to follow safe sex practices?
  2. What are the social beliefs and perceptions that condition women and men’s expectations and aspirations for dating or courtship relationships? For marriage? For multiple partners?
  3. How might men or women interpret information about HIV prevention differently based on their gender identities?
  4. How do beliefs about who should make decisions in the household affect women’s ability to influence her and her partner’s decisions to get tested? What kind of decisions do men make in the household?
  5. Which kinds of decisions are made jointly?
    • When and with whom to have sex
    • Safe sex
    • Use of FP, ANC, skilled delivery care, postpartum care?
    • VCT, PMTCT, voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC)
    • Children’s health and nutrition
    • Management of the household
    • Schooling for boys and girls
  6. What are men’s and women’s different experiences with violence—as victims, survivors or perpetrators? How does the fear of and/or experience of violence by an intimate partner affect women’s risk of contracting HIV? Her willingness to get tested? Her ability to disclose her status to her partner?
  7. What types of beliefs about men’s “ideal” behaviors put men at risk of HIV, or increasing the risk for their intimate partners?
  8. Who decides at what age a boy or girl marries? How does early marriage affect the risk of HIV infection and the likelihood of accessing services?
  9. Who decides whether or not a boy or man is circumcised, or whether or not if a girl or woman undergoes female genital mutilation?

Practices and Participation
(Roles & Responsibilities)

  1. What is the gendered division of labor: roles, activities, work, and responsibilities of women and men. How might these affect the burden of care they assume for family members with HIV?
  2. Do men or women have restrictions on their mobility that may increase or decrease their vulnerability and access to care?
  3. What types of activities, meetings, associations, and groups do they engage in? How do these different patterns of association affect men’s and women’s respective access to information and capacity to understand and protect themselves from HIV?
  4. What types of leadership roles do men and women play? To what extent can men and women influence HIV prevention, treatment, and care policies?
  5. Respectively, how do men and women spend their time? Are men or women forced into or prone to economic activities that may put them at greater risk of HIV infection (e.g., sex work, migrant work)?
  6. Spatially, within the community and beyond, where are men’s and women’s activities located? How does the different location of men’s and women’s activities put them at greater or lesser risk of HIV infection or affect their exposure to other diseases that may adversely affect their health, especially if they are HIV positive?
  7. What are men’s and women’s different experiences with violence—as victims, survivors or perpetrators?
  8. Who decides at what age a boy or girl marries?
  9. Who decides whether or not a boy or man is circumcised, or whether or not if a girl or woman undergoes female genital mutilation?
  10. Does a man or a woman in a couple decide when to have sex; when to have a child? Who decides about PMTCT?

Laws, Policies,
and Institutions

  1. How do inheritance laws treat men and women respectively?
  2. Are there laws on HIV? What are they? How might they affect HIV protection or risk?
  3. Is sex work illegal?
  4. Is homosexuality illegal?
  5. What employment opportunities are open to men? What employment opportunities are open to women? How are men’s and women’s employment opportunities respectively affected by their HIV status?
  6. How do men’s access to state resources (e.g., health, education, basic infrastructure, and public goods) compare to women’s?
  7. Do men, women and other gender identities have equal status under all national, regional, and local laws?
  8. Are there laws and policies preventing stigma and discrimination based on HIV status? Are they enforced?
Next Section: Community Level >

Resources

Demographic and Health Survey Modules.

Demographic Health Survey Program.

2013. Washington DC: ICF for USAID.
http://bit.ly/1R9d0yw

Authors: Demographic Health Survey Program. Date: 2013

Organization: ICF International

URL: http://bit.ly/1R9d0yw

Health Area: National health statistics

Tool Objectives (What is this tool designed to help you do?): In addition to the standard DHS questions the health status of women of reproductive age and their children, the women’s module includes questions designed to measure the status of women relative to men. The questionnaire asks about different areas of women’s lives related to empowerment, including decision-making, autonomy, ownership of houses and land, barriers to accessing medical care, and attitudes toward intimate partner violence. A parallel men’s questionnaire probes areas of men’s knowledge of reproductive health and includes questions about men’s health. In addition, it inquires about men’s employment and attitudes related to women’s empowerment, such as decision-making, childbearing, women’s autonomy, and intimate partner violence.
The Domestic Violence module supports a more extensive examination of intimate partner and sexual violence. It is administered to women only. The module interviews a subset of the women interviewed for the main DHS household and women’s modules. Information on men who experience intimate partner violence comes from the men’s module of the standard DHS and not from the Domestic Violence module.

Targeted Users: Policymakers, researchers, and health system administrators and
planners.

How to apply the tool? These instruments were developed to use for national level surveys. They are lengthy and expensive to administer and not appropriate for project level data collection. Nevertheless, they are useful as a reference when developing surveys at the local or regional levels within countries as the questions have been tested and validated across a number of different contexts. The results of the DHS surveys in individual countries are also a good starting point before designing and conducting gender data collection and analysis. National findings may not capture local variations in key gender indicators. In most countries, there is considerable variation across different regions and ethnic groups. When working in different areas of the country, a project may find it useful to use some standard DHS-like questions to capture this variation in a comparable form.

Using Household Surveys for Gender Analysis in Developing Countries.

Garbarino, Sabine and Mary Strode.

2010. London: Oxford Policy Management.
http://bit.ly/1MGpmuQ

Authors: Garbarino, Sabine and Mary Strode. Date: 2010

Organization: Oxford Policy Management

URL: http://bit.ly/1MGpmuQ

Health Area: General

Tool Objectives (What is this tool designed to help you do?): This brief outlines recommendations to improve household survey design and data collection to conduct a gender analysis. It provides an overview of key gender analysis terms. It includes an overview of how to avoid gender bias when carrying out fieldwork using household questionnaires and combining qualitative and quantitative methods in gender analysis.

Targeted Users: Organizations developing household surveys that will be used in gender analysis of an intervention.

How to apply the tool? Used to design household surveys to create a good base for gender analysis.

WHO Multi-country Study on Women’s Health and Domestic Violence.

Garcia-Moreno, Claudia, Henrica A.F.M. Jansen, Mary Ellsberg, Lori Heise, Charlotte Watts.

2005. Geneva: World Health Organization.
http://bit.ly/1Idj5b4

Authors: Garcia-Moreno, Claudia, Henrica A.F.M. Jansen, Mary Ellsberg, Lori Heise, Charlotte Watts. Date: 2005

Organization: World Health Organization (WHO)

URL: http://bit.ly/1Idj5b4

Health Area: Violence against women and girls

Tool Objectives (What is this tool designed to help you do?): This resource reports on the findings of a multi-country study of intimate partner violence. Its objectives were to: 1) estimate the prevalence of violence against women; 2) assess the extent to which intimate partner violence is associated with different types of health outcomes; 3) identify factors that are either protective or subject women to risk of partner violence; and 4) document the strategies and services that women use to deal with intimate partner violence. The full version of the report includes the data collection instruments used in the survey in Annexes 3-4.

Targeted Users: Researchers, M&E specialists, and program managers who are interested in researching or evaluating intimate partner violence.

How to apply the tool? The tool was developed to be used at a population level but the questions are designed to collect data from individuals at the household level.

Authors: Demographic Health Survey Program. Date: 2013

Organization: ICF International

URL: http://bit.ly/1R9d0yw

Health Area: National health statistics

Tool Objectives (What is this tool designed to help you do?): In addition to the standard DHS questions the health status of women of reproductive age and their children, the women’s module includes questions designed to measure the status of women relative to men. The questionnaire asks about different areas of women’s lives related to empowerment, including decision-making, autonomy, ownership of houses and land, barriers to accessing medical care, and attitudes toward intimate partner violence. A parallel men’s questionnaire probes areas of men’s knowledge of reproductive health and includes questions about men’s health. In addition, it inquires about men’s employment and attitudes related to women’s empowerment, such as decision-making, childbearing, women’s autonomy, and intimate partner violence.
The Domestic Violence module supports a more extensive examination of intimate partner and sexual violence. It is administered to women only. The module interviews a subset of the women interviewed for the main DHS household and women’s modules. Information on men who experience intimate partner violence comes from the men’s module of the standard DHS and not from the Domestic Violence module.

Targeted Users: Policymakers, researchers, and health system administrators and
planners.

How to apply the tool? These instruments were developed to use for national level surveys. They are lengthy and expensive to administer and not appropriate for project level data collection. Nevertheless, they are useful as a reference when developing surveys at the local or regional levels within countries as the questions have been tested and validated across a number of different contexts. The results of the DHS surveys in individual countries are also a good starting point before designing and conducting gender data collection and analysis. National findings may not capture local variations in key gender indicators. In most countries, there is considerable variation across different regions and ethnic groups. When working in different areas of the country, a project may find it useful to use some standard DHS-like questions to capture this variation in a comparable form.

Authors: Garbarino, Sabine and Mary Strode. Date: 2010

Organization: Oxford Policy Management

URL: http://bit.ly/1MGpmuQ

Health Area: General

Tool Objectives (What is this tool designed to help you do?): This brief outlines recommendations to improve household survey design and data collection to conduct a gender analysis. It provides an overview of key gender analysis terms. It includes an overview of how to avoid gender bias when carrying out fieldwork using household questionnaires and combining qualitative and quantitative methods in gender analysis.

Targeted Users: Organizations developing household surveys that will be used in gender analysis of an intervention.

How to apply the tool? Used to design household surveys to create a good base for gender analysis.

Authors: Garcia-Moreno, Claudia, Henrica A.F.M. Jansen, Mary Ellsberg, Lori Heise, Charlotte Watts. Date: 2005

Organization: World Health Organization (WHO)

URL: http://bit.ly/1Idj5b4

Health Area: Violence against women and girls

Tool Objectives (What is this tool designed to help you do?): This resource reports on the findings of a multi-country study of intimate partner violence. Its objectives were to: 1) estimate the prevalence of violence against women; 2) assess the extent to which intimate partner violence is associated with different types of health outcomes; 3) identify factors that are either protective or subject women to risk of partner violence; and 4) document the strategies and services that women use to deal with intimate partner violence. The full version of the report includes the data collection instruments used in the survey in Annexes 3-4.

Targeted Users: Researchers, M&E specialists, and program managers who are interested in researching or evaluating intimate partner violence.

How to apply the tool? The tool was developed to be used at a population level but the questions are designed to collect data from individuals at the household level.

The Core Men’s Questionnaire.

Fulu, Emma and Rachel Jewkes

Bangkok, Thailand: Partners for Prevention.
http://bit.ly/1Oj7GI3

Authors: Fulu, Emma and Rachel Jewkes Date:

Organization: Partners for Prevention

URL: http://bit.ly/1Oj7GI3

Health Area: FP, gender-based violence

Tool Objectives (What is this tool designed to help you do?): This survey was developed for the United Nation’s Partners for Prevention initiative focused on building evidence and theory-based approaches to prevent violence. This survey can be used to gather information about men’s FP practices and sexual relationships. The survey includes sections on sociodemographic characteristics and employment, childhood experiences, attitudes about relations between men and women, intimate relations, fatherhood, health and well-being, and policies. A self-administered section of the questionnaire allows participants to answer questions about their sexual relations with partners privately and anonymously. It has been used by UNFPA in Bangladesh, UN Women in Cambodia and Indonesia, UNFPA and Institute of Sexualities and Gender Studies in China, United Nations Development Programme in Papua New Guinea, and CARE International and CPA Social Indicator in Sri Lanka.

Targeted Users: Organizations focused on assessing men’s attitudes and experiences related to FP and GBV.

How to apply the tool? This tool can be used by organizations working on interventions related to FP and GBV.

Positive women monitoring change: A monitoring tool on access to care, treatment and support, sexual and reproductive health and rights and violence against women created by and for HIV positive women.

International Community of Women Living with HIV/AIDS (ICW)

2008. tSwaziland and Lesotho: ICW.
http://bit.ly/1TfwCiV

Authors: International Community of Women Living with HIV/AIDS (ICW) Date: 2008

Organization: International Community of Women Living with HIV/AIDS (ICW)

URL: http://bit.ly/1TfwCiV

Health Area: HIV

Tool Objectives (What is this tool designed to help you do?): The positive women monitoring change (PWMC) tool provides organizations working with HIV-positive women tools for monitoring HIV-positive women’s barriers in access to care and treatment and support and their sexual and reproductive rights (SRR). Section One is an advocacy framework which includes definitions of key terms (p. 7), positive women’s health and rights indicators (p. 8), and questionnaires for HIV positive women, service providers, and governments in the three key areas: access to care and treatment, sexual and reproductive rights, and violence against women (p. 9-29). The third section includes the training curriculum (p. 30-39). Section four includes fact sheets on STIs, thrush, and motherhood; pregnancy, childbirth, and feeding; access to care and treatment; sexual and reproductive rights; and violence against women (p. 30-51). The last section includes a feedback form on the positive women monitoring change tool (p. 52-53).

Targeted Users: HIV-positive women and service providers working with HIV-positive women.

How to apply the tool? The positive women monitoring change tool can be used for advocacy and monitoring.

Tékponon Jikuagou (TJ) Project: Baseline Household Survey

Institute for Reproductive Health (IRH).

2008. Accessible in Baseline Household Survey Report Tékponon Jikuagou Project: Addressing Unmet Need for FP through Social Networks in Benin. Washington DC: IRH.
http://bit.ly/1PQYPyL

Authors: Institute for Reproductive Health (IRH). Date: 2008

Organization: Institute for Reproductive Health (IRH).

URL: http://bit.ly/1PQYPyL

Health Area: FP

Tool Objectives (What is this tool designed to help you do?): The Tékponon Jikuagou project focused on reducing unmet need for FP. This survey, developed by the Tékponon Jikuagou project, can be used to collect data on women’s attitudes and behaviours related to fertility, child spacing, and FP, and to learn more about individuals’ social networks. The survey provides interviewers with information about the individuals’ key demographic information, women’s beliefs and attitudes about FP (for women in polygamous marriages), couple communication and gender norms, and experience with FP interventions. To learn more about the project that initially used this survey in Benin click here: http://bit.ly/1HyPjOa

Targeted Users: This survey is designed to assess women’s unmet needs in FP interventions.

How to apply the tool? This survey can be used by organizations implementing projects focused on FP.

Authors: Fulu, Emma and Rachel Jewkes Date:

Organization: Partners for Prevention

URL: http://bit.ly/1Oj7GI3

Health Area: FP, gender-based violence

Tool Objectives (What is this tool designed to help you do?): This survey was developed for the United Nation’s Partners for Prevention initiative focused on building evidence and theory-based approaches to prevent violence. This survey can be used to gather information about men’s FP practices and sexual relationships. The survey includes sections on sociodemographic characteristics and employment, childhood experiences, attitudes about relations between men and women, intimate relations, fatherhood, health and well-being, and policies. A self-administered section of the questionnaire allows participants to answer questions about their sexual relations with partners privately and anonymously. It has been used by UNFPA in Bangladesh, UN Women in Cambodia and Indonesia, UNFPA and Institute of Sexualities and Gender Studies in China, United Nations Development Programme in Papua New Guinea, and CARE International and CPA Social Indicator in Sri Lanka.

Targeted Users: Organizations focused on assessing men’s attitudes and experiences related to FP and GBV.

How to apply the tool? This tool can be used by organizations working on interventions related to FP and GBV.

Authors: International Community of Women Living with HIV/AIDS (ICW) Date: 2008

Organization: International Community of Women Living with HIV/AIDS (ICW)

URL: http://bit.ly/1TfwCiV

Health Area: HIV

Tool Objectives (What is this tool designed to help you do?): The positive women monitoring change (PWMC) tool provides organizations working with HIV-positive women tools for monitoring HIV-positive women’s barriers in access to care and treatment and support and their sexual and reproductive rights (SRR). Section One is an advocacy framework which includes definitions of key terms (p. 7), positive women’s health and rights indicators (p. 8), and questionnaires for HIV positive women, service providers, and governments in the three key areas: access to care and treatment, sexual and reproductive rights, and violence against women (p. 9-29). The third section includes the training curriculum (p. 30-39). Section four includes fact sheets on STIs, thrush, and motherhood; pregnancy, childbirth, and feeding; access to care and treatment; sexual and reproductive rights; and violence against women (p. 30-51). The last section includes a feedback form on the positive women monitoring change tool (p. 52-53).

Targeted Users: HIV-positive women and service providers working with HIV-positive women.

How to apply the tool? The positive women monitoring change tool can be used for advocacy and monitoring.

Authors: Institute for Reproductive Health (IRH). Date: 2008

Organization: Institute for Reproductive Health (IRH).

URL: http://bit.ly/1PQYPyL

Health Area: FP

Tool Objectives (What is this tool designed to help you do?): The Tékponon Jikuagou project focused on reducing unmet need for FP. This survey, developed by the Tékponon Jikuagou project, can be used to collect data on women’s attitudes and behaviours related to fertility, child spacing, and FP, and to learn more about individuals’ social networks. The survey provides interviewers with information about the individuals’ key demographic information, women’s beliefs and attitudes about FP (for women in polygamous marriages), couple communication and gender norms, and experience with FP interventions. To learn more about the project that initially used this survey in Benin click here: http://bit.ly/1HyPjOa

Targeted Users: This survey is designed to assess women’s unmet needs in FP interventions.

How to apply the tool? This survey can be used by organizations implementing projects focused on FP.

International Men and Gender Equality Survey (IMAGES) Survey Questionnaires.

Promundo and International Center for Research on Women.

2011. Washington D.C.: ICRW.
http://bit.ly/21iD3HT

Authors: Promundo and International Center for Research on Women. Date: 2011

Organization: International Center for Research on Women and Instituto Promundo

URL: http://bit.ly/21iD3HT

Health Area: Men’s engagement

Tool Objectives (What is this tool designed to help you do?): The International Men and Gender Equality Survey questionnaire developed under the Men and Gender Equality Policy Project can be used to assess men’s attitudes and practices and women’s opinions of men’s practices related to several key topic areas, including gender-based violence, health and health-related practice, household division of labor, men’s participation as caregivers/fathers, attitudes about gender-related policies, transactional sex, criminal behavior, and quality of life. The tool includes one questionnaire for men and one for women. These questionnaires include sections focused on sociodemographic information, childhood experiences, attitudes about relations between men and women, sexual diversity, household dynamics, policies, parenting, relationships and violence, and health and quality of life.
These questionnaires were used in Latin America, South Asia, and sub-Saharan Africa with more than 8,000 men and 3,500 women ages 18-59.

Targeted Users: Project staff working with men and women involved in projects addressing gender equality.

How to apply the tool? This tool can be used to interview men and women about attitude and practices related to gender equality issues. The tool authors recommend that organizations interested in using the survey in new locations should contact Gary Barker at Instituto Promundo (g.barker@promundo.org.br) and/or Ravi Verma (rverma@icrw.org) and Manuel Contreras (mcontreras@icrw.org) at ICRW. It has been used in Brazil, Chile, Croatia, India, Mexico, and Rwanda.

Food Security in Practice: Using Gender Research in Development.

Quisumbing, Agnes R and Bonnie McClafferty.

2006. Washington DC: International Food Policy Research Institute.
http://bit.ly/1PdqOZu

Authors: Quisumbing, Agnes R and Bonnie McClafferty. Date: 2006

Organization: International Food Policy Research Institute

URL: http://bit.ly/1PdqOZu

Health Area: Nutrition

Tool Objectives (What is this tool designed to help you do?): Using empirical evidence on how gender and intra-household issues affect development interventions, this tool guides users on how to incorporate research findings into development projects and policy. Findings are presented on International Food Policy Research Institute gender and intra-household research program and guides users on how to use project and policy cycles as frameworks for incorporating gender research. For example, this guide examines how to address gender throughout the project cycle for a needs assessment, project design, project implementation, and M&E.

Targeted Users: Project implementers and policymakers.

How to apply the tool? This tool can be used to incorporate gender throughout each stage of the project cycle and to increase attention to gender in policies.

Authors: Promundo and International Center for Research on Women. Date: 2011

Organization: International Center for Research on Women and Instituto Promundo

URL: http://bit.ly/21iD3HT

Health Area: Men’s engagement

Tool Objectives (What is this tool designed to help you do?): The International Men and Gender Equality Survey questionnaire developed under the Men and Gender Equality Policy Project can be used to assess men’s attitudes and practices and women’s opinions of men’s practices related to several key topic areas, including gender-based violence, health and health-related practice, household division of labor, men’s participation as caregivers/fathers, attitudes about gender-related policies, transactional sex, criminal behavior, and quality of life. The tool includes one questionnaire for men and one for women. These questionnaires include sections focused on sociodemographic information, childhood experiences, attitudes about relations between men and women, sexual diversity, household dynamics, policies, parenting, relationships and violence, and health and quality of life.
These questionnaires were used in Latin America, South Asia, and sub-Saharan Africa with more than 8,000 men and 3,500 women ages 18-59.

Targeted Users: Project staff working with men and women involved in projects addressing gender equality.

How to apply the tool? This tool can be used to interview men and women about attitude and practices related to gender equality issues. The tool authors recommend that organizations interested in using the survey in new locations should contact Gary Barker at Instituto Promundo (g.barker@promundo.org.br) and/or Ravi Verma (rverma@icrw.org) and Manuel Contreras (mcontreras@icrw.org) at ICRW. It has been used in Brazil, Chile, Croatia, India, Mexico, and Rwanda.

Authors: Quisumbing, Agnes R and Bonnie McClafferty. Date: 2006

Organization: International Food Policy Research Institute

URL: http://bit.ly/1PdqOZu

Health Area: Nutrition

Tool Objectives (What is this tool designed to help you do?): Using empirical evidence on how gender and intra-household issues affect development interventions, this tool guides users on how to incorporate research findings into development projects and policy. Findings are presented on International Food Policy Research Institute gender and intra-household research program and guides users on how to use project and policy cycles as frameworks for incorporating gender research. For example, this guide examines how to address gender throughout the project cycle for a needs assessment, project design, project implementation, and M&E.

Targeted Users: Project implementers and policymakers.

How to apply the tool? This tool can be used to incorporate gender throughout each stage of the project cycle and to increase attention to gender in policies.