Illustrative General Questions At
The District & Program Levels

Access To and
Control Over Assets

  1. Are ambulances deployed equitably to meet the different needs of men and women?
  2. Are fees for transport applied equitably and without discrimination?
  3. Is there any difference in budgets for drugs and supplies (e.g. vasectomy vs. oral contraceptive pills) that are routinely used for men’s health compared to women’s health?
  4. Are district budgets analyzed and appropriated according to gender equity principles?
  5. Are employment and training opportunities for male and female health care workers allocated equitably?

Beliefs and Perceptions
(Norm)

  1. Are health messages, illustrations, and other media presentations free of gender stereotypes and biases?
  2. Are district authorities knowledgeable of national gender equality polices? To what extent do they implement and enforce the policies?
  3. Is there equal concern for disseminating health information to men and women?

Practices and Participation
(Roles & Responsibilities)

  1. Are men and women equitably involved in program planning??
  2. Do men and women working at the same level of care and in the same cadres receive equal support and opportunities in terms of benefits, training, promotions, and leadership opportunities?
  3. Are men’s and women’s different health needs taken into consideration in district planning, program design and budget development?
  4. Are measures taken to address women and mens’ different constraints in accessing services, for example:
    • Hours health services are open
    • Educational materials, messages, and health outreach activities
  5. Balance of men and women in the health work force
  6. Are male and female health care workers trained on gender equality?
  7. Where do men and women seek care for themselves and their children and why: traditional healer, local drug shop, community health worker, formal health clinic, a combination of the above?

Laws, Policies,
and Institutions

Do referral systems treat men and women equitably?

What is the likelihood of women being appropriately referred and reaching the facility level in a timely fashion?

What is the likelihood of men being appropriately referred and reaching the facility level in a timely fashion?

Are there family-friendly policies in place? Does the organization of health work take into consideration women’s disproportionate responsibilities for childcare, food preparation, and other family care?

Are the differential effects on men and women taken into consideration regarding different forms of cost recovery, such as fees and insurance?

Are there mechanisms in place for registering and addressing practices that are gender discriminatory or inequitable?

Are their gender equitable workplace policies?

Do supervision guidelines incorporate attention to gender equality?

Are men and women represented equally in district health care leadership posts?

Are men and women represented equally in positions as health care trainers?

Illustrative Questions Specific To
Malaria At The District & Program Levels

Access To and
Control Over Assets

  1. Do women and men, and boys and girls under 5 years old have equal access to malaria bed nets?
  2. Do men and women have equal opportunity for employment on indoor residual spray teams?
  3. Does information about malaria prevention and control reach both men and women?
  4. Do women and men, and boys and girls under 5 years old have equal access to malaria bed nets?
  5. Do men and women have equal opportunity for employment on indoor residual spray teams?
  6. Does information about malaria prevention and control reach both men and women?

Beliefs and Perceptions
(Norm)

  1. Are there beliefs about what it means to be a man that may deter men who are sick from seeking or receiving care at health centers?
  2. Are there beliefs about what it means to be a woman that may deter women who are sick from seeking or receiving care?
  3. Do health workers believe that men should receive preferential treatment over women? How does this affect delivery of care?
  4. Are these attitudes and beliefs addressed through district-level supervision and training?

Practices and Participation
(Roles & Responsibilities)

  1. Has the division of labor between men and women been taken into consideration for planning and monitoring, to address issues such as exposure risk (times of day when men and women work outside) and biological vulnerability (e.g., pregnancy)?
  2. Are women restricted from moving on their own, outside of their households or communities that may restrict access to services?
  3. Do women or men face time constraints that may limit their ability to get to services when they are open?
  4. Are there times during the malaria season when men or women may be sleeping outdoors?
  5. Are nets adequately allocated and distributed in communities where women and men sleep in separate houses at times? Are there sufficient nets allocated to polygynous households?
  6. Are new drugs tested on both men and women of different ages?
  7. Are there outreach activities to adolescent girls living with HIV and affected by malaria? How are they identified?
  8. Are services for HIV and malaria co-located to minimize the time, effort, and expense that persons living with HIV have to exert to get care, especially young and pregnant women?
  9. Does the fulfillment of other household or social roles impede treatment seeking?

Laws, Policies,
and Institutions

  1. Are data on prevalence sex-disaggregated and analyzed for sex-specific patterns?
  2. Are data on utilization of health services disaggregated by sex and analyzed for disparities in utilization of services by men and women according to prevalence rates?
  3. Do district plans for net distribution take into consideration who in the household controls financial resources and who might control use of nets?
  4. In the case of indoor residual spraying, do district plans and policies support equal employment opportunities for men and women in all positions on spray teams?
  5. Do district policies about location of health services and times they are open take into consideration men’s and women’s different time constraints and mobility restrictions?
  6. Do research protocols include both women and men of different ages?
    Are there gender equitable policies that guide the allocation of malaria resources within the district?
  7. Is there research underway or planned to support delivery of home-based and door-step care?
Next Section: The National Level >

Resources

The Theory of Change of Gender-Responsive Budgeting.

Alami, Niseen.

2010. New York: United Nations Development Fund for Women.
http://bit.ly/1Ojk0Ij

Authors: Alami, Niseen. Date: 2010

Organization: UNIFEM

URL: http://bit.ly/1Ojk0Ij

Health Area: General/Gender-Responsive budgeting

Tool Objectives (What is this tool designed to help you do?): This report provides insight into the how gender-responsive budgeting relates to implementation of projects committed to gender equality and areas for intervention. It outlines key challenges behind policy commitments to gender equality, who is accountable, the ways gender-responsive budgeting can influence implementation of gender equality commitments, standards for defining if a budget is responsive to gender equality demands, and the theory of change in the context of gender-responsive budgeting.

Targeted Users: Organizations developing a gender-responsive budget in support of projects committed to gender equality in their programs.

How to apply the tool? This tool can be used to develop gender-responsive budgets to support gender equality in project interventions.

Gender Integration Index.

Health Policy Initiative.

2010. Washington, DC: Futures Group for USAID.
http://bit.ly/1YwOWaX

Authors: Health Policy Initiative. Date: 2010

Organization: Health Policy Initiative.

URL: http://bit.ly/1YwOWaX

Health Area: District

Tool Objectives (What is this tool designed to help you do?): This Gender Integration Index was developed by USAID’s Health Policy Initiative to assess how gender is integrated into policy, management, and technical components of a project. The tool is organized around three different components that project staff can use to better integrate gender into the design and evaluation of a project. Component 1: Assessing Gender Equity of Project Management Practices features organizational policies and procedures for integrating gender into the workplace and guidelines for assessing staff’s technical competency around gender (p. 4-7). Component 2: Designing and Implementing Activities includes guidelines on conducting a gender analysis to assess the ways in which gender is considered in the design and anticipated outcomes of a project (p. 8). Component 3: Achieving Gender-Equitable Results includes a table for assessing the ways in which activities outlined in an annual report integrate gender (p. 11). A glossary of terms (p. 12) includes key gender-related terms.

Targeted Users: This tool is targeted to project managers and staff involved in design and monitoring of project results.

How to apply the tool? This tool can be used to assess how gender is integrated into the policy, management, and technical components of a project. The results of the assessment can be used to facilitate dialogue among staff about gender issues within a project.

Gender Budgeting: Practical Implementation Handbook.

Quinn, Sheila.

2009. Strasbourg, France: Directorate General of Human Rights and Legal Affairs, The Council of Europe.
http://bit.ly/1lN8NVf

Authors: Quinn, Sheila. Date: 2009

Organization: Council of Europe, Directorate General of Human Rights and Legal Affairs

URL: http://bit.ly/1lN8NVf

Health Area: General

Tool Objectives (What is this tool designed to help you do?): The handbook provides guidance on how to do gender budgeting. It provides an overview of prerequisites for gender budgeting (p.11-13); the three stages of gender budgeting (p.16-22); and useful tools for gender budgeting (p. 22-30). The handbook also outlines how to do gender budgeting at different levels including the central government, sectoral/departmental, regional/local government, and program level. An annex of key terms, additional resources, and websites is also provided. This handbook assumes prior knowledge of and the rationale for gender mainstreaming.

Targeted Users: It is intended for practitioners responsible for gender budgeting.

How to apply the tool? This handbook can be used to assist with developing a budget at different levels, including central government, sectoral/departmental, regional/local government, and the program level.

Authors: Alami, Niseen. Date: 2010

Organization: UNIFEM

URL: http://bit.ly/1Ojk0Ij

Health Area: General/Gender-Responsive budgeting

Tool Objectives (What is this tool designed to help you do?): This report provides insight into the how gender-responsive budgeting relates to implementation of projects committed to gender equality and areas for intervention. It outlines key challenges behind policy commitments to gender equality, who is accountable, the ways gender-responsive budgeting can influence implementation of gender equality commitments, standards for defining if a budget is responsive to gender equality demands, and the theory of change in the context of gender-responsive budgeting.

Targeted Users: Organizations developing a gender-responsive budget in support of projects committed to gender equality in their programs.

How to apply the tool? This tool can be used to develop gender-responsive budgets to support gender equality in project interventions.

Authors: Health Policy Initiative. Date: 2010

Organization: Health Policy Initiative.

URL: http://bit.ly/1YwOWaX

Health Area: District

Tool Objectives (What is this tool designed to help you do?): This Gender Integration Index was developed by USAID’s Health Policy Initiative to assess how gender is integrated into policy, management, and technical components of a project. The tool is organized around three different components that project staff can use to better integrate gender into the design and evaluation of a project. Component 1: Assessing Gender Equity of Project Management Practices features organizational policies and procedures for integrating gender into the workplace and guidelines for assessing staff’s technical competency around gender (p. 4-7). Component 2: Designing and Implementing Activities includes guidelines on conducting a gender analysis to assess the ways in which gender is considered in the design and anticipated outcomes of a project (p. 8). Component 3: Achieving Gender-Equitable Results includes a table for assessing the ways in which activities outlined in an annual report integrate gender (p. 11). A glossary of terms (p. 12) includes key gender-related terms.

Targeted Users: This tool is targeted to project managers and staff involved in design and monitoring of project results.

How to apply the tool? This tool can be used to assess how gender is integrated into the policy, management, and technical components of a project. The results of the assessment can be used to facilitate dialogue among staff about gender issues within a project.

Authors: Quinn, Sheila. Date: 2009

Organization: Council of Europe, Directorate General of Human Rights and Legal Affairs

URL: http://bit.ly/1lN8NVf

Health Area: General

Tool Objectives (What is this tool designed to help you do?): The handbook provides guidance on how to do gender budgeting. It provides an overview of prerequisites for gender budgeting (p.11-13); the three stages of gender budgeting (p.16-22); and useful tools for gender budgeting (p. 22-30). The handbook also outlines how to do gender budgeting at different levels including the central government, sectoral/departmental, regional/local government, and program level. An annex of key terms, additional resources, and websites is also provided. This handbook assumes prior knowledge of and the rationale for gender mainstreaming.

Targeted Users: It is intended for practitioners responsible for gender budgeting.

How to apply the tool? This handbook can be used to assist with developing a budget at different levels, including central government, sectoral/departmental, regional/local government, and the program level.

Gender-based Analysis in Government Practices and Those of Local and Regional Decision-Making Bodies.

Secretariat a la condition feminine du ministère de la Culture, ministère des Communications et de la Condition Feminine.

2010. Montreal, Canada: Government of Quebec.
http://bit.ly/1OucVTl

Authors: Secretariat a la condition feminine du ministère de la Culture, ministère des Communications et de la Condition Feminine. Date: 2010

Organization: Secretariat a la condition feminine du ministère de la Culture, ministère des Communications et de la Condition Feminine.

URL: http://bit.ly/1OucVTl

Health Area: Multisectoral

Tool Objectives (What is this tool designed to help you do?): This guide outlines the advantages of conducting a gender analysis throughout the life of a project in response to Quebec’s Turning Equality in Law into Equality Policy. As a governance tool, this guide provides background on what a gender-based analysis is, a rationale for using it, and when it is appropriate to use it.

Targeted Users: Project staff and managers.

How to apply the tool? This tool can be used to apply a gender-based analysis of projects and integrate gender analysis into any phase of a project.

Gender Mainstreaming for Health Managers: A Practical Approach

World Health Organization.

2011. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization.
http://bit.ly/1Xuhrnk

Authors: World Health Organization. Date: 2011

Organization: World Health Organization.

URL: http://bit.ly/1Xuhrnk

Health Area: General

Tool Objectives (What is this tool designed to help you do?): This tool is designed to provide guidance to facilitate and participate in workshops focused on concrete ways to integrate gender into public health projects. It is divided into three modules to build knowledge on key concepts for integrating gender in public health (Module 1); conduct a gender analysis (Module 2); and to assess policies and programs to develop gender-responsive activities (Module 3). It also includes two booklets for participants and facilitators. The participant notes provide guidance for participation in gender and health workshops based on the three modules. The booklet includes background reading, WHO gender analysis tools, exercises, and activity sheets. The facilitator’s guide provides guidance on moderating a workshop.

Targeted Users: This tool can be used by public health managers at international, national, and community-based institutions.

How to apply the tool? The three different modules can be used by facilitators to lead a workshop that builds participants’ knowledge and skills on key gender concepts, conduct a gender analysis, and assess and develop gender-responsive programming.

Integrating gender into HIV/AIDS programmes in the health sector: Tool to improve responsiveness to women’s needs

World Health Organization

2009, World Health Organization
http://bit.ly/2017OQ8

Authors: World Health Organization Date: 2009

Organization: World Health Organization

URL: http://bit.ly/2017OQ8

Health Area: HIV

Tool Objectives (What is this tool designed to help you do?): This field-tested tool was developed as a response to a global consultation on Integrating Gender into HIV/AIDS programs. This tool examines the ways gender inequalities impact women’s access to and their experience of HIV programs and services. It also provides program managers with steps to create gender-responsive HIV/AIDS programs and services. For example, it includes guidance on basic steps in gender-responsive programming (p. 1), addressing gender inequalities in programs testing for HIV and providing counseling (p. 31), prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (p. 49), HIV/AIDS treatment and care (p. 57), and home-based care for people living with HIV (p. 67). The annexes provide both manager and provider checklists for assessing the extent to which a program or service is gender-responsive.

Targeted Users: This tool is intended for program managers and health care providers responsible for designing, implementing, and evaluating HIV/AIDS programs.

How to apply the tool? This tool should be used to complement existing guidelines for national, regional, district, public, private, and donor-supported HIV/AIDS programs. It can be used to conduct training on building a gender-responsive HIV/AIDS program in order to better integrate gender into existing HIV/AIDS programmatic guidelines, strategic plans, and management plans and teams.

Authors: Secretariat a la condition feminine du ministère de la Culture, ministère des Communications et de la Condition Feminine. Date: 2010

Organization: Secretariat a la condition feminine du ministère de la Culture, ministère des Communications et de la Condition Feminine.

URL: http://bit.ly/1OucVTl

Health Area: Multisectoral

Tool Objectives (What is this tool designed to help you do?): This guide outlines the advantages of conducting a gender analysis throughout the life of a project in response to Quebec’s Turning Equality in Law into Equality Policy. As a governance tool, this guide provides background on what a gender-based analysis is, a rationale for using it, and when it is appropriate to use it.

Targeted Users: Project staff and managers.

How to apply the tool? This tool can be used to apply a gender-based analysis of projects and integrate gender analysis into any phase of a project.

Authors: World Health Organization. Date: 2011

Organization: World Health Organization.

URL: http://bit.ly/1Xuhrnk

Health Area: General

Tool Objectives (What is this tool designed to help you do?): This tool is designed to provide guidance to facilitate and participate in workshops focused on concrete ways to integrate gender into public health projects. It is divided into three modules to build knowledge on key concepts for integrating gender in public health (Module 1); conduct a gender analysis (Module 2); and to assess policies and programs to develop gender-responsive activities (Module 3). It also includes two booklets for participants and facilitators. The participant notes provide guidance for participation in gender and health workshops based on the three modules. The booklet includes background reading, WHO gender analysis tools, exercises, and activity sheets. The facilitator’s guide provides guidance on moderating a workshop.

Targeted Users: This tool can be used by public health managers at international, national, and community-based institutions.

How to apply the tool? The three different modules can be used by facilitators to lead a workshop that builds participants’ knowledge and skills on key gender concepts, conduct a gender analysis, and assess and develop gender-responsive programming.

Authors: World Health Organization Date: 2009

Organization: World Health Organization

URL: http://bit.ly/2017OQ8

Health Area: HIV

Tool Objectives (What is this tool designed to help you do?): This field-tested tool was developed as a response to a global consultation on Integrating Gender into HIV/AIDS programs. This tool examines the ways gender inequalities impact women’s access to and their experience of HIV programs and services. It also provides program managers with steps to create gender-responsive HIV/AIDS programs and services. For example, it includes guidance on basic steps in gender-responsive programming (p. 1), addressing gender inequalities in programs testing for HIV and providing counseling (p. 31), prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (p. 49), HIV/AIDS treatment and care (p. 57), and home-based care for people living with HIV (p. 67). The annexes provide both manager and provider checklists for assessing the extent to which a program or service is gender-responsive.

Targeted Users: This tool is intended for program managers and health care providers responsible for designing, implementing, and evaluating HIV/AIDS programs.

How to apply the tool? This tool should be used to complement existing guidelines for national, regional, district, public, private, and donor-supported HIV/AIDS programs. It can be used to conduct training on building a gender-responsive HIV/AIDS program in order to better integrate gender into existing HIV/AIDS programmatic guidelines, strategic plans, and management plans and teams.